Yes, peripheral vision differs from people to people due to distinguishing color of their eyes and pigments on their retinas. We all know that we have two types of light sensitive cells in the retina, rods and cones, which can determine the image that the world displays to us. Well, Because the density of receptor cells on the retina, those with light eyes are more sensitive to light and narrower sphere of vision. You can read more from the reference link, which is about a research about their relationship. The conclusion is that people with blue eyes had the narrowest range, while people with brown eyes did have the widest range of peripheral vision. Apart from that, people with green eyes had a range of peripheral vision that was between the people with brown and blue eyes.
Actually the color of the eyes is determined by the genetic gene which is born to be. It has little relationship with peripheral vision which is weak at people. If you want to improve he peripheral vision, you could eat more food with vitamin A and C to moisture the eyes. In order to have the beautiful eyes, you could choose to wear the colored contact lenses.
Yes it does. As a matter of fact the darker your eye color the better off your peripheral vision this is because when your eye is darker the pupil opens wider allowing more light to come in and in turn the wider the range of your peripheral vision. But the lighter your eye color the smaller the pupil to allow light to penetrate and the smaller the range of your peripheral vision.
Yes, all eye colored eyes have the same peripheral vision.
In fact, eye color has nothing to do with your vision. Eye color is decided by the amount of melanin in your iris which absorb or reflect short and long wavelength. As long as your eyes has no defects or disability, you see things the same as other people with different eye colors.